I ran across recently, and needed to share. The basic idea of the site is that it hosts a number of subdomains with all sorts of variants of SSL certificates. The example certificates cover the whole range of things that can go wrong with a certificate, including expiration, self signed certs, revoked certificates, and certificates for the wrong host. It also checks the strength of cryptography being used and has certificates specifying multiple different kinds of encryption to be tested against. This is all so you can see that your browser is securing you properly.

There is a more interesting use case however. When you go over to the associated github repo there are instructions for booting up the site locally inside a docker container so you can test your code against it as part of your automated test suite to test all sorts of other networking code outside of a browser. The container hosting a separate copy of the site avoids putting your integration tests in a path where they reach out to the public internet for resources. Having your integration tests work with public resources on the internet isn’t a good practice for a number of reasons, such as the time it takes to round trip, the dependency on someone else’s infrastructure for your processes, and just being inconsiderate of someone else’s resources. But, this container lets you avoid all of the work associated with defining what certificates are needed, generating the various certificates, and installing all of certificates.

The test case we used the certificates for didn’t turn up any bugs, but it did make us confident in the implementation. This confidence helped us move along more quickly and be sure we were appropriately securing the connections.


Encryption Future

As a working programmer, encryption doesn’t seem like it changes much. AES and RSA public key cryptography have been fairly consistent in the world for a while. Key size recommendations have held up to the projections on computing power, so the overall landscape of implementation hasn’t had much movement. There has been a big emphasis on deciding to encrypt web traffic and lots of other things, but no real changes in the underlying technology.

The unveiling of a 72 qubit quantum computer and some of the work I’ve been doing on encryption at my job has had me thinking about the future of encryption. The jump from 17 qubits in 2017 to 72 already this year makes me think we’re getting close to an inflection point where quantum computing goes from a toy to a realistic threat to existing crypto systems.

Lattice-based cryptography is the leading contender for quantum resistant cryptography. The math behind it is based on the same math that describes the be arrangement of atoms in a crystal, but instead of happening in a three dimensional space it happens in an arbitrarily high dimension. I don’t understand the math behind this in three dimensions let alone higher dimensions. However, I do appreciate that the idea of the hard problem to be solved is based on a normal concept, like elliptic curve cryptography factoring integers. Understanding the idea helps me trust that the underlying math makes sense, even if I don’t understand the math itself.

Looking into this I stumbled into a different idea that was much more radical. Homomorphic encryption is the idea that you can do work over two different encrypted values such that the encryption is distributed over other arbitrary operations. So essentially


Encrypted(a) + Encrypted(b) = Encrypted(a+b)


However this works for all operations not just addition. Practically, this is overkill for any normal application; however, if the party with the data and the party with an algorithm are unwilling to trust each other you could use this to send the data to the algorithm securely and process it. While this seems like an amazing technology from a security and privacy perspective, there is a downside – it currently takes ~13 ms per logical gate to process. So, even something simple like adding two integers would take seconds to complete. You won’t be able to encrypt your data and give it to a foreign neural network anytime soon.

Realistically, nobody is going to implement this themself. There will be academic applications for now, and eventually something will emerge from NIST’s post-quantum cryptography program that everyone agrees seems right. Once there is agreement on a secure standard, different existing cryptography providers will start to add whatever that is to the package and application developers just need to update make new keys and reencrypt the world.


Recently I’ve been working on rolling out a Vault implementation at work and to migrate all of our existing secrets over. It is a tool designed to secure secret data and control access to it. It also offers a variety of ways to handle dynamic secrets for things like database credentials. The dynamic database credentials are are an interesting security feature; any particular set of database credentials can be shut off at any point if compromised and are effectively rotated each time a new instance starts up. It can also act as a certificate authority. This is all built on top of a configurable set of backends and HA clustering setups.

One of the most interesting things is the unsealing process. The system starts sealed, where all of the secrets are inaccessible. The unseal process requires a majority of key fragments to be provided to unseal the vault. This is an implementation of Shamir’s Secret Sharing which i sa cool concept. In the enterprise version, it also provides an auto-unsealing mechanism built on top of AWS Key Management Service.

The REST API is pretty good and most major languages have a third party client available already. The third party clients have different levels of compatibility with all of the features of the system; since it is a plugin based system they don’t necessarily support everything. Sadly, the UI also doesn’t support all of the features, which makes doing some basic testing about how the system works more painful.

Vault seems like a very good tool chest for dealing with secrets, but I would like a more opinionated system about how to do this. I can build my own system on top of it but would like to have integrated support for creating a key of some type and storing it securely. Similarly, its scheme to provide transit encryption requires a lot of work on my side if I wanted to use it. Despite these areas for improvement I’m still excited to get it integrated into our systems.